GNC Bioferm enzymes have broad application across target species and feed ingredients.

Optimal results from diets containing cereals high in non-starch polysaccharides such as wheat, barley, oats, triticale, and rye require enzyme supplementation. There is growing recognition that enzymes assist in the utilization of other cereals (corn, sorghum) and protein sources (soybean, canola, sunflower meals).

All GNC Bioferm enzymes are uniquely suited to these applications because of the wide range of secondary enzymes and co-factors that facilitate degradation of intact cell walls of all feed ingredients. Enzymes improve digestibility, growth, and feed conversion. Enzymes are conducive to cleaner animals, cleaner barns due to improved litter/fecal quality, and cleaner eggs in laying operations.

Hygiene and sound environmental conditions are critical items in today’s animal industry with reduced reliance upon antibiotics, and growing public concerns with biosafety.

It is universally recognized that single enzyme products are less effective than multi-enzyme systems.  The target substrates, cell wall constituents, are complex and are more effectively degraded by a host of synergistic enzymes than a single enzyme targeting a specific bond type.  Moreover, variability in cell wall structures among feed ingredients adds to the complexity of the system, and the benefit to be gained by synergistic enzymes working in concert with one another.

Many enzyme manufacturers attempt to mix purified enzyme, often produced using GMO organisms, to duplicate this effect. Naturally it is impossible to predict which combination, and what proportions, would be optimal to cope with the diversity of NSP’s encountered across animal feeds.  The alternative approach, employed by GNC, is to rely on substrate sources that are representative of the target materials in feed.  The production organism is compelled to produce a viable enzyme complement to flourish in a competitive environment.

Synergistic Enzyme Systems

Research reports indicate that single enzyme products are less effective than multi-enzyme products.  Feed ingredients are complex substrates that are more effectively degraded with a host of synergistic enzymes than a single enzyme targeting a single bond type.  Cell wall non-starch polysaccharides are complex in a single ingredient, however, the range is even larger given the multitude of ingredients included in animal feeds.

Many enzyme products represent attempts to combine purified enzymes to achieve this effect.   Naturally it is impossible to predict which combination and what levels will be optimal across a wide range of feed ingredients.  The alternative approach employed by GNC is to rely on intact natural substrates, utilizing non-GMO organisms to produce synergistic enzyme systems that are representative of the target materials in feed.  The production organisms are forced to produce a viable enzyme complement to flourish in a competitive environment. 

A few of the enzymes/enzyme systems that are found in GNC products:

  • Hemicellulolytic enzymes refers to the multiple enzyme system that degrade cell wall hemicellulose, primarily endo-xylanase which is assisted by xylosidase that releases xylose from xylosaccharides.  Arabinosidase releases arabinose from branched xylan thus exposing the xylan “backbone” to further attack.  Ferulic acid esterase similarly assists by releasing xylan from other cell wall constituents.
  • Cellulolytic enzymes refer to the enzyme system responsible for the degradation of cellulose.  This includes cellulase, which degrades the primary cellulose chain, as well as glucosidase which releases individual glucose units from partially degraded cellulose.
  • Galactomannase degrades cell wall elements based on mannose.  
  • Galactosidase degrades oligosaccharides occurring in most plant sources, primarily raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose.
  • Pectinase  degrades pectin-related materials occurring in non-cereal ingredients

Much of the research with feed enzymes has focused on the elimination of high viscosity imposed by soluble fiber fractions occurring in cereal grains.  A second, more universal effect, is the destruction of cell walls which encapsulate and act as a barrier to digestion.  This requires a host of enzymes.

Also facilitating enzymic degradation are poorly understood factors which are credited with assisting binding of enzymes to their respective substrates.  For example, amylase activity is normally measured in assays based on gelatinized starch, which is far more susceptible than raw starch.

Major NSP sugars released with Endofeed across feed ingredients, depicting broad activity range

NSP Sugar (mg/g) [1] Soy Meal Canola Peas Flax Wheat Corn Barley
GALACTOSE 86 132 41 72 35 132 567
ARABINOSE 6 27 46 4 27 26 --
XYLOSE 20 6 29 54 388 6 6
GLUCOSE 125 96 20 144 181 96 66
MANNOSE -- -- -- -- -- -- --
RHAMNOSE -- -- -- -- -- -- --
PHENOL RELEASE [2] 0.8 1.3 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.5

(1) Determined HPLC-ion Exchange Chromatography.

(2) Ferulic acid esterase equivalent.